A mixture of unknown compounds was separated based on the difference in reactivity (with aqueous acid or base) and in solubility (in aqueous and organic solvents), the separation from one compound from a mixture by this technique is called extraction. The technique of extraction allows for unknown compounds to be identified based on their melting points as well as their reactivity with acid and based. Extraction is one of the most common and most useful techniques in organic chemistry for separating and purifying compounds. Separation by extraction is based on the differences in solubility of compounds in two different, immiscible solvents. Extraction refers to the fact that one compound is removed from a mixture in one solution; therefore the remaining compounds are in a different solution.
Determination of whether one of the compounds in the mixture is an organic acid:
1) To test whether the reactive compound in the unknown mixture is either acidic or basic, we mixed a small portion of the unknown mixture, about the size of a micro-spatula, with the same amount of solid sodium bicarbonate on a watch glass.
2) We slowly added a few drops of water and stirred, watching for any sign of gas being evolved. The bubbling of carbon dioxide was evidence that the mixture contained an acidic compound; therefore no gas would have indicated it to be a basic compound.
Separating the compounds:
1) We set up a separatory funnel making sure the stopcock was secured and closed.
2) We dissolved approximately 15 grams of the unknown mixture in approximately 30 ml of MTBE in an Erlenmeyer flask. The flask was swirled and the solid crushed with a glass rod to dissolving as much of the solid as possible.
3) The solution was poured into the separatory funnel. If the does not completely dissolve,, the solution was decanted into the separatory funnel
4) After step 3, if the unknown mixture contains an acid then it...