Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday objects. A desk, the air, even you are made up of atoms! There are 90 naturally occurring kinds of atoms. Scientists in labs have been able to make about 25 more. Atoms are made up of three particles. They are the proton (which is the positively charged particle), electron (which is the negatively charged particle), and the neutron (which has no charge at all).
Ions are just an atom that has lost or gained an electron. An atom is the most stable but only when it outer most layer is filled. Isotopes- are atoms of the same element but different number of neutrons. Chemical compounds are formed by the joining of two or more atoms. A stable compound occurs when the total energy of the combination has lower energy than the separated atoms. The bound state implies a net attractive force between the atoms ... a chemical bond. The two extreme cases of chemical bonds are covalent bonds: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms.
ionic bonds: in which one or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom, resulting in positive and negative ions which attract each other. Covalent chemical bonds involve the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms, in contrast to the transfer of electrons in ionic bonds. Such bonds lead to stable molecules if they share electrons in such a way as to create a noble gas configuration for each atom.
Covalent bonds in which the sharing of the electron pair is unequal, with the electrons spending more time around the more nonmetallic atom, are called polar covalent bonds. In such a bond there is a charge separation with one atom being slightly more positive and the other more negative, i.e., the bond will produce a dipole moment. The ability of an atom to attract electrons in the presence of another atom is a measurable property called electro negativity. In chemical bonds, atoms can either transfer or...