Due to different historical context between the First and Third World countries, the urbanization process began in countries of these two worlds from different time and circumstances. Although it was inevitable to have differences in the urbanization process between these two worlds, some similarities can be found. In this essay, I shall attempt to analyze both the similarities and differences between the main characteristics of the urbanization process in the First and Third Worlds.
Definition of concepts
According to Pacione(2009) ,urbanization is an “increase in the proportion of the total population that lives in urban areas”. Moreover, he also defined the term First World and Third World as “capitalist industrial market economies” and “initially non-aligned states” respectively in the political sense. The Third World is defined as ”countries that generally, although not uniformly, failed fully to develop economically after independence” in the socio-economic sense as well.
First and foremost, there is a similarity in terms of the pace of urbanization. The urbanization process in both worlds explicit similar paces across time. Thompson (1929) proposed the Demographic Transition model (Figure 1), which described the population change in different stages of industrialization and urbanization. At the beginning of the industrialization, the population growth and the resultant rural migration into urban area are rapid, and then the trend slows down and finally reaches near zero. First world countries have passed through the second stage after the Industrial Revolution, and most of these countries are in the third stage nowadays while some highly-developed countries like Japan and the US are steeping into the fourth stage. Similarly, Thompson (1929) believed that the Third World countries are in the stage two which the First World countries have passed through. Indeed, the pace of urbanization of the Third World is slowing down...