Discuss the theories of four well known psychologists.
For the second assignment of my pre-access course, I have been asked to look at the theories of some of the most influential psychologists and discuss what they have suggested. The four psychologists that I will be looking at are; Maslow, Bowlby, Piaget and Freud.
Maslow’s work is based heavily on the humanistic approach. Maslow believed that every individual progresses through a hierarchy of needs in life in order to feel content and satisfied. He presented this as a hierarchy of needs pyramid, which can be divided into two types of needs; basic needs such as safety, esteem and love, and growth needs, such as cognitive aesthetics and self-actualization. Maslow suggested that every individual must satisfy lower level basic needs before they are able to progress towards higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, the individual may be able to reach the highest level of the pyramid. This level is known as self-actualization. Maslow believed that every individual is perfectly capable of progressing towards self-actualization, and can also possess the desire to move up the hierarchy of needs. However, this progress can be often be disturbed by factors such as the malfunction to meet lower level needs. Furthermore, individuals are also able to fluctuate between the different levels of hierarchy due to experiences in life such as the loss of a job or divorce. As a result, Maslow therefore noted that only one in a hundred people are able to become fully-self actualized. This is because society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs. He described self-actualized people as “people who were fulfilled in life, doing all they were capable of,” and is heavily based on human motivation.
Although Maslow believed that everyone can self-actualize, he noted that most people may only to a limited degree, whilst some never will. He identified...