Answers to Reading Questions for Week Four Name: _James Atkins_
1. What was the point Gilligan objected to in Kohlberg?
Carol Gilligan objected that Kohlberg used mostly males in his research. Kohlberg's study also had data that steered in favor if the males that were in the study, more than the females. So the females naturally scored lower than the males.
2. Why does Boylan think that bonding is not enough in personal relationships?
Michael Boylan believes that people are driven by self-interest, rather than social bonding. This means that people will tend to look after themselves first before they would another person. To overcome this, there must be more than bonding in a relationship.
3. What is intuitionism? [4-6 sentences]
It is the theory that all facts are known by intuition rather than reason. In mathematics, facts are resulted from the mental findings of the human brain rather than the fundamental rights of real problem solving. Intuitionism says that "good" is an indefinable notion. Moral principles are picked by following basic moral intuitions.
4. What are the three principles of ethical intuitionism?
moral realism, the autonomy of ethics and foundationalism in the theory of knowledge
5. What are Level 1 and Level 2 ethical intuitionism?
6. What is ethical non-cognitivism?
This is a thesis that explains that moral judgments do not express facts and so do not have a honest value for facts.
7. What do non-cognitivists mean by locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary?
Locutionary means to express oneself only with verbal actions. Illocutionary would be a verbal expression with a command. Perlocutionary is the commanding utterance that persuades or influences a person's response.
8. Explain briefly the role of emotion in non-cognitivist ethics.
Non-Cognitivism ignores the external causes of emotional and prescriptive reactions. Instead, there is a physical element that triggers a reaction....