1. Describe the order model. What founder(s) of sociology is associated with this theory and why? What do order theorists emphasize when they study society? Use examples from chapter 3. Explain the relevance of this theory?
The Order Model (Functionalism). Functionalism is the oldest, and still the dominant, theoretical perspective in sociology and many other social sciences. A social system is assumed to have a functional unity in which all parts of the system work together with some degree of internal consistency. Functionalism also postulates that all cultural or social phenomena have a positive function and that all are indispensable. Distinctions have been made between manifest functions, those consequences intended and recognized by participants in the system, and latent functions, which are neither intended nor recognized.
The French sociologist Émile Durkheim argued that it was necessary to understand the “needs” of the social organism to which social phenomena correspond. Other writers have used the concept of function to mean the interrelationships of parts within a system, the adaptive aspect of a phenomenon, or its observable consequences. In sociology, functionalism met the need for a method of analysis; in anthropology it provided an alternative to evolutionary theory and trait-diffusion analysis.
A theoretical approach to the study of social systems in societies in which social structures are described in terms of how they contribute to the maintenance of these systems. For example, sport maybe described in terms of its contribution to social integration.
Conflict theorists argue that that the social order supports the interest of the group wit power. Sport is organized at every level of society (youth, high school, college, professional) to exploit athletes and meet the goals of the powerful (prestige, public relations).