International Business Review Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 295-312, 1995
Copyright © 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0969-5931/95 $9.50 + 0.00
Gree,n Marketing in Europe and the United States: an Evolving Business and Society Interface
Marc Lampe* and Gregory M. Gazdat
*School of Business Administration, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92110, USA ?John M. Ahlers Center for International Business, School of Business Administration, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92110, USA
Abstract - - Concern for the environment has become one of the most important issues of the
1990s. Both in Europe and the United States, companies have discovered that consumers will buy products, or avoid their purchase, based upon environmental considerations. This phenomena, referred to as Green Marketing, involves the marketing response to the design, production, packaging, use and disposal of products. This article traces the evolution of green business, and the societal catalysts and pressures that have resulted in green marketing. Next, key green marketing issues and activities, both in Europe and the United States, are discussed. Finally, key implications and implementation strategies are suggested.
Marketing in Europe and the United States
Key Words - - Green Marketing, Environmental, Greening.
The Evolution of Green Business: a Brief History In the late 1960s the United States began the modern environmental movement and became the world leader for environmental reform. At that time European countries were still engaged in completing post-World War II economic recovery (Flattau, 1990). In the US the ecology movement of the 1960s raised public awareness and concern. This movement led to the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y (EPA) in 1970, and the passage of n u m e r o u s environmental laws during the...