Rationalism is a term derived from the Latin word ‘ratio’ which means reason. Rationalism is a view or thought which appeals to reason as a principal source of attaining knowledge and justification of things. Technically, rationalism is a method in which the reason that is supported by observation, should serve in an excellent way, as the source of all our convictions. Since there are various degrees of emphasis in this method, it leads to a wide range of rationalist viewpoints from a moderate view or position which justifies, “The Reason has the high priority to obtain knowledge over other ways” to an extreme view or position which justifies “Reason is the only approach to knowledge”.
If we analyze the background of rationalism, it’s related with the introduction of the mathematical techniques into philosophy, which is called as continental rationalism. Empiricism, which is contrasted with rationalism, is the theory of knowledge in Philosophy that emphasizes the role of evidence that arises from knowledge, is gathered through experience. In the Philosophy of Science, Empiricism emphasizes that the scientific knowledge and its aspects are associated with evidence and they are discovered through experiments. But the difference between rationalism and empiricism was drawn at a later stage.
Socrates, one of the Founders of the Classic Western Philosophy, was a Greek Athenian Philosopher. He believed that humans need to understand themselves before they understand the world. According to Philosophy, Man is made up of two parts, a soul and a body. The soul has its two parts namely Rational and Irrational. Rational part is our true personality. Irrational part refers to our desires and the emotions or feelings. In a human being’s life, the irrational soul is inside the physical body and it is bonded with the desires and emotions. The rational soul is beyond the knowledge of conscience. Rationalism is to purify and extract the irrational source from its...