Dr. Howard Fine
What is normal? The medical model Defining abnormality Levels of Analysis Biological and medical frameworks Drug treatment Psycho-education Behavioural approaches Cognitive behavioural approaches Psychodynamic approaches Humanistic frameworks Systemic frameworks SIGNIFICANT PSYCHOLOGISTS
Freud, Rogers, Rutter, Beck, Klein, Milan, White
What is normal?
It is extremely difficult to avoid value judgments when deciding when someone's psychologically abnormal or disturbed.
The Medical Model 1
Historical background Medical Model brought about by GPI General Paresis of the Insane (GPI) - caused by syphilis, began with weakness in the limbs and proceeded to eccentricity and delusions of grandeur, ending up in almost total paralysis and finally death.
→ Symptoms similar to madness
→ Does this mean that disorder is just a matter of value judgment or is there any evidence of factual basis to disorder?
Psychological abnormality is thought to be essentially like physical abnormality (medical model).
view usually held by psychiatrist (medical training).
However, over course of the 19th C., evidence revealed definite physical basis linked to syphalicitic infection.
Effective drug treatments were subsequently developed and GPI eliminated! Therefore of practical importance for sufferers & wider implications…
Defining abnormality :
Deviation from the norm Social conformity Cultural relativity
→ If GPI, a form of madness, had a biological cause and responded to drug intervention then perhaps all mental disorders would follow the same pattern!
The Medical Model 2
Psychological disorder thought of in a similar way to physical disorder, supporting the idea that there is a factual basis to defining psychological abnormality or disorder. ⇒ disorder has an underlying biological basis. John Wing (1978) cites two main criteria for the medical model: 1. Symptoms of a particular illness...