The Impact of the Great War
The Impact of the Great War on public opinion in India
* Firstly, many felt a sense of British patriotism and supported Britain in the war. Thousands of individuals volunteered for military service and politicians pledged their loyalty.
* However, there were many other changes in opinion. It became apparent firstly that Britain was no longer the supreme global empire. Though Britain had an alliance with Russia, many Indians chose to fight for Britain, due to fear that if the British were defeated Russia may choose to occupy India anyway.
* Trench warfare changed public opinion of the British significantly too. Many Indians had the stereotype that perhaps the English possessed a moral high ground. This opinion was strengthened in particular by the major campaign through Mesopotamia, where many Indian troops who were involved were massively underequipped.
The meaning, origins, nature and consequences of Ghadr
* Ghadr- translates to mutiny
* Origins- There were two early mutinies of Pathans in winter of 1914-15 caused by fear they would be led by Muslim officers. A rumour spread that they were to embark for France and kill European civilians. Order however was quickly established and 37 ringleaders were executed. Another more significant mutiny, the most important, did never actually take place- in 1914 a Japanese steamer was commissioned by more than 300 Sikhs in Malaya to take them to Canada. The Canadians however refused entry to their voyage. After months in the harbour the ship returned back to Calcutta. By the time it had arrived, however, in September 1914, war had broken out and suspicions were high.
* Nature- Ghadr referred to the movement of anti-British Indians moving to the Canadian coastal province of British Colombia.
* Consequences- the Sikhs who had been sent back to Calcutta found troops waiting to escort them to a holding camp. Some tried to escape- 22 were shot in total. The rest were...