Unemployment, according to the conventional and most commonly used concept, measures involuntary idleness, that is, the time for which individuals are available for and willing to, but are not able to find work.
Unemployment, according to the conventional and most commonly used concept, measures involuntary idleness, that is, the time for which individuals are available for and willing to, but are not able to find work. It does not invisible unemployment or under employment, that is a situation of work with very low levels of productivity and income.
The problem of unemployment is a difficult one for India. Although the problem had existed in the past, it has become more acute after the independence.
Backwardness of the Indian economy and increasing population are mainly responsible for this problem. Empty mind is a devil’s workshop. Unemployed man gives up all moral standards and defies all social laws.
A few salient feature of the unemployment situation in India may be noted.
First, the incidence of unemployment is much higher in urban than in rural areas.
Second, unemployment rates for women are higher than those for men.
Third, a larger difference between the “usual” and “weekly” status unemployment rates, on the one hand and “daily status” unemployment rates, on the other, in the case of women than of men suggests that underemployment is of much higher proportion among the former than the latter.
Fourth, the incidence of unemployment among the educated is much higher at about 12 percent than the overall usual status unemployment of 3.77 percent. In fact, unemployment rate rise with every successive higher level of education.
The nature of unemployment differs according to the level of economic development in a country, India being an underdeveloped economy. It has the following types of unemployment:
It is of two kinds, and Disguised or underemployment.
It is again of two kinds: Industrial unemployment and...