Why the South Lost the War
In the days of the American Revolution and of the adoption of the Constitution, differences between the way of life in the North and South were put on hold by their common interest in establishing a new nation. As time passed in this young nation, sectionalism steadily grew stronger. Even though America had already been through a revolution for independence, the vast differences in ideals forced war to break out in the divided nation. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America, also known as the Confederacy. The twenty five remaining other states, in which slavery had been recently abolished, became known as the Union. The American Civil War started in 1861 and continued through 1864, finally ending in 1865. After four years of bloody, devastating warfare the Confederacy surrendered and slavery was outlawed everywhere in the nation.
During the Civil War, the Union was led by recently elected President Abraham Lincoln and the Confederacy was led Jefferson Davis. In retrospect, there are multiple reasons for the South’s loss or for the North’s victory. One of the reasons the North’s victory was their superiority in manpower. Lincoln had at his disposal a population of 22,000,000, compared with a Southern population of 9,000,000, which included 3,500,000 slaves whom they dared not arm. The key difference was, as casualties grew for the Union Army, they reluctantly turned to African Americans. This provided a far larger base from which to draw troops, even though it has been suggested that Southerners were keener to join up than their Union counterparts.
In terms of resources, the Union advantage was huge. New York alone produced manufactures of a value four times greater than that of the total Southern output and the North had a virtual monopoly on heavy industries such as coal, iron, woolens, armaments, shipyards, and machine shops. All of these were...